Genetic diversity analysis. Techniques used (isoenzymes, PCR-based analysis of DNA polymorphism , ....)

Molecular markers. Isoenzymes, DNA


Techniques utilisée dans l'étude de la diversité génétiques des plantes
Technics used in studies of plant genetic diversity (isoenzymes, PCR-based analysis of DNA polymorphism )
تقنيات مستعملة في دراسة التنوع الوراثي للنبات

techniques based on biochemical and molecular markers are used in many studies related to genetic diversity studies and all biochemistry fields. Kinds of markers change from protein analysis, isoenzymes and PCR-based molecular markers, such as RAPD (generated DNA fragments).
Les analyses en biochimie et en biotechnologies necessitent le developpement de plusieurs techniques, dont l'electrophorese pour separer les proteines, isoenzymes, fragments de DNA generes par RAPD, ... See (biochimie et applications en Biotechnologies)
The investigation of genetic diversity of many species is based on electrophoresis technique, which allow the separation of molecules on the basis of their electric charge and their size. In many cases, electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels is used to carry out the separation. Before this step, extracts are prepared from leaves, in the case of plants.
See more in Biotechnology techniques.


Molecular markers. Isoenzymes, DNA

Isoenzymes. Examples of biochemical markers used in genetic diversity studies

Examples of enzyme systems revealed in date palm
Reaction mixtures for isoenzyme staining after electrophoresis.(Link: Isoenzymes marqueurs)
Estérases (EST):
Incubate gels 15 min in 100 ml substrate solution containing: 0,03 g Alpha-Naphthylacetate (in acetone 50%) and Tris-Hcl 0.05 M pH 7,2.
+ Rince gels 2 times with water.
Incubate 20 min in 100 ml stain solution: Fast Blue RR salt 0,14 g + Tis-Hcl pH 7.2 .,05 M

EST isoenzymes

Endopeptidases (ENP):
Alpha-N-Benzoyl-DL-Arginine-Beta-Naphthylamide 80 mg (in methanol) + 2 ml Nacl 1 M + 2 ml Mgcl2 0,1 M +
5 ml acetate buffer 0,1 M pH 5,0 + Distilled Water to make 100 ml solution.Incubation 15
min and remove substrate solution.
Add 100 ml solution containing: Fast Blue K 50 mg + 2 ml Nacl 1 M + Mgcl2 0,1 M + 5 ml Acetate buffer 0,1 M pH 5.0
Incubation until visualization of bands on gels

enp isoenzymes

Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT):
Incubate during 15 min gels in 100 ml substrate solution containing 250 mg Aspartic acid + 100 mg Alpha-ketoglutaric acid + 50 ml Tris-Hcl 0.5 M pH 7,2 50 ml.
Rince and add 100 ml stain solution: 200 mg Fast blue BB + 50 ml Tris-Hcl 0.5 M pH 7.2
Incubation until visualization of bands on gels

got isoenzymes

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RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) as a PCR-based marker.

Extraction of total DNA
DNA extraction were achieved by CTAB (Cetyl Triméthyl Ammonium Bromide) method. DNA is recovered in the aqueous phase and precipitated with ethanol or isopropanol
DNA Quantification
DNA concentrations were estimated by spectrophotometry using the ratio OD 260/OD 280. One unit OD260 = 50 µg/ml
Dilution of DNA extracts.
Before their amplification by RAPD technique DNA extracts were diluted to 10 ng/µl
DNA amplification by RAPD method
Reaction mixture:A 50 µl reaction mixture is used in the DNA amplification by RAPD. Various mix could be essayed.
Example: Reaction Mix 1:
Buffer (B) without MgCl2 (10x)...... 5 µl
MgCl2 (25 mM)........................... 5 µl
dXTP (1 mM).............................. 5 µl
Primer (2,5 µM)........................... 5 µl
Taq polymérase (0,5 unité/µl)........ 5 µl
DNA (10 ng/µl)............................ 5 µl
Distilled water .............................20 µl
Examples of primers, series A and B purshased from OPERON (sequence 5'-->3')
Example of gel obtained with RAPD technique on DNA extracted from date palm leaves:

DNA. Molecular markers

Useful links

- Techniques used in Biochemistry and Molecular biology analyzes
- Techniques d'électrophorèse
- Techniques d'isoenzymes (pdf)
- Marqueurs basés sur la PCR
- Application du marquage isoenzymatique chezlz palmier dattier. Travaux pratiques (TP)
- Téchniques (vidéos) couramment utilisées en Biotechnologies


  • Palmier dattier Palmier dattier نخيل التمر Date palm

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  • Olivier Olivier الزيتون Olive

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  • Pin Alep Pin d'Alep الصنوبر الحلبي Aleppo pine

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  • Atriplex Atriplex القطف Atriplex

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  • Céréales Céréales الحبوب Cereals

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  • Cactus Cactus الصبار Cactus

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  • Youtube chaine
    Biotech-ecolo. net. Supports CHAINE YOUTUBE Chaine Youtube (abonnement). Plusieurs vidéos multilingues (+ s/titres) aux sujets des Biotechnologies et Biochimie
  • 400 QCM et Concours (Ar, Fr) sur Structure et Métabolisme des Sucres, M. Baaziz, 2018:
    - Présentation du livre
    - Affiche du Livre

  • Glossaire trilingues Français-Arabe-Anglais

    - Livre 'Sciences de la vie. Protéines et Enzymes' (+ DVD),Baaziz, 2013: QCM corrigés, Exercices corrigés, Contrôles corrigés en Biologie cellulaire et Biochimie pour S1, S3, S4 et S5.

  • Adresse

    Faculty of Sciences, Cadi Ayyad University
    Marrakech, 40000, Morocco


    Phone: 212524434649 (post 513)
    Fax: 212524434669

    Techniques. Molecular markers, Isoenzymes, DNA